Italian adjectives may be found before or after the nouns they modify, depending on various factors. Generally speaking, descriptive adjectives follow nouns, while limiting adjectives precede nouns.
Adverbs of frequency express how often the action of a verb occurs.
Adverbs of manner express how the action of a verb occurs. In English, the vast majority of adverbs of manner end in -ly, whereas in Italian, they mostly end in -mente. They are usually created from adjectives.
Adverbs of place express where the action of a verb occurs.
Adverbs of quantity express how much, how many, or to what extent.
Adverbs of time express when the action of a verb occurs.
Articulated prepositions are the contractions of certain Italian prepositions with definite articles. In English, contractions like "I’m" and "won’t" are optional and indicate informality. In Italian, however, preposizioni articolate are required, regardless of the register you’re speaking or writing in.
Demonstrative adjectives (this, that) are used to indicate a specific noun or nouns. In Italian, they must agree with the noun(s) in number and sometimes gender: questo, quella, quei ….
Dovere is a very common Italian verb with irregular conjugations and an unusual relationship to some of its English equivalents. It has several meanings related to obligation, supposition, and expectation.