Euphonic D

Italian euphonic d
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D eufonica

In Italian, there are some words that change form in very specific constructions for reasons of pronunciation. These can be divided into two categories:

  • Masculine articles and adjectives in front of complex sounds
  • Three tiny words that take on the d eufonica, explained in this lesson

These three words are

1. a   "to, at, in"   (preposition)
2.  e   "and"   (conjunction)
3. o   "or"   (conjunction)

When these single-letter words precede a word that starts with the same letter, the d eufonica is added to prevent a doubling of that vowel sound.

Per esempio…

Vado ad Amsterdam.   I’m going to Amsterdam.
Nico è cortese ed eloquente.   Nico is polite and eloquent.
Quest’anno le classi sono settanta od ottanta.   There are seventy or eighty classes this year.


 When the second word starts with that vowel followed by d, the d eufonica is generally not used in order to avoid repeating the same sound (e.g., ad ad), especially when speaking.

Per esempio

Andiamo a Addison.   We’re going to Addison.
Luciana è cordiale e educata.   Luciana is friendly and polite.
È amore o odio?   Is it love or hate?

 Related lessons

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Italian euphony: ad ed od

Virtual Italian Teacher at Lawless Languages | Website | + posts

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