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The past participle is a verb form with several roles. It’s essential in the creation of compound verb tenses/moods and the passive voice, and it can also be used as an adjective.
The Italian past participle usually ends in
1) Compound verb forms
Compound verb tenses and moods are two-word verb forms made up of a conjugated auxiliary verb (avere or essere) plus a past participle.
|Compound verb form|
|Ho perso le mie chiavi.||I lost my keys.||passato prossimo|
|Ero già caduto.||I had already fallen.||trapassato prossimo|
|L’avrò provato.||I will have tried it.||futuro anteriore|
2) Passive voice
Essere plus a past participle forms the passive voice.
|Roma è amata da tutti.||Rome is loved by all.|
|Le stazioni di servizio sono spesso derubate.||Gas stations are often held up.|
|Il matrimonio sarà seguito da un ricevimento.||The wedding will be followed by a reception.|
When used as an adjective, the Italian past participle may be equivalent in English to a past or present participle, or to a regular adjective.
|C’è una macchina ferma nell’incrocio.||There’s a stopped car in the intersection.|
|I bambini sono seduti in salotto.||The kids are sitting in the living room.|
|Perché è arrabbiata?||Why is she angry?|
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Ciao! I’m Laura K Lawless, creator, writer, editor, and CLO (Chief Lawless Officer) of this free online Italian learning site. Lawless Italian is an official Lawless Languages site.
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